Comments on Henry Belot "John Lloyd warns underperforming public servants on individual accountability", 2/04/2016
It is not just junior staff may under-perform, some managers including fairly senior ones also undoubtedly under-perform that cause the whole units under them to under-perform. Many senior managers don't have senior management skills and cannot innovate either. They have not graduated from a lower manager role.
Further, there is a culture for senior managers to protect their close friends of men/women. As a result, they blame other staff for their own incompetency.